Anaemia

anemiaDefinition:-

It is one of the common blood disorders; it refers to reduction in, RBC, Hb, packed cell volume (PCV)

When the Hb content of the blood is decrease below the normal level. And form,

  • Decrease production of RBC
  • Increase destruction of RBC.
  • Excess loss of blood from the body.

Causes: – 

  • Accidents / hemorrhage from the body – may be internal or external.
  • Hereditary & acquired.
  • Infection, Inflammation.
  • Haematuria.
  • Chronic blood loss.
  • Nutritional deficiency.
  • Blood disorders.
  • Menorrhagia
  • Pregnancy or in post menopausal period.

Classification:

1. Morphological classification:-

Here it depends upon the size & color of RBC, color is determined by quantity of Hb.

  • Normocytic normochromic anemia: Here the size & Hb content of RBC are normal, but no. of RBC’s less.
  • Macrocytic normochromic anemia: In this RBC are larger in size with normal Hb content, the RBC count is decrease.
  • Macrocytic hypochromic anemia: Here the RBC is larger in size. The Hb content in the cell (MCH- Mean Corpuscular Hb ) is less, so the cells are pale.
  • Microcytic hypochromic anemia: The RBC is smaller in size & the Hb content (MCH) is less.

2.  Etiological classification : –

Hemorrhagic Aaemia:   it is of 2 types acute & chronic

In Acute hemorrhage occurs in conditions like accidents, ulcers, excessive uterine bleeding, purpura & hemophilia.

In Chronic Hemorrhage the condition like loss of blood by internal & external bleeding over a long periods of time like – peptic ulcer, purpura, hemophilia, menorrhagia.

Hemolytic Anemia: Hemolytic means destruction of RBC.

Causes of hemolytic anemia are as follows

  • Liver failure.
  • Renal disorder.
  • Hypersplenism burns or any infections like malaria or septicemia.
  • When the shape is abnormal, RBC becomes more
  • Fragile & hemolytic occurs easily.

Nutritional Deficiency Anemia: iron deficiency anemia:- Its is the most common type of anemia & present in world wide. it is develops due to inadequate availability of iron for Hb synthesis.

Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia are as follows:

  • Loss of blood
  • Decrease intake of iron.
  • Poor absorption of iron from intestine (duodenum & jejunum)
  • Increase demand of iron in pregnancy & growth.

Etiology :

  • Sex: in females: Especially in Indian females in reproductive life & menorrhagia.
  • In post- menopausal woman’s
  • In males: it is less but due to some reasons like- peptic ulcers, UTI-haematuria, epistaxis etc.
  • Infants & children’s.

Clinical features :

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Dyspnoea
  •  Skin Pallor.
  • Pigmentation of skin.
  • Koilonychia- nails are soft, thin, and brittle, spoon shaped & became concave.

Angular stomatitis

  • Irritability
  • Menstrual cycle is disturbed.
  • Drowsiness
  • Fainting
  • Lack of concentration.
  • Increase rate of respiration..Etc…

 Lab investigation:

  • Leucocytes count.
  • Bone marrow findings
  • Platelets
  • Hb% – Normal value  in females : 11 – 14  gm% &
  • In males :12- 15 gm%

 Physical examination:-

  • Eye: Pallor ++,
  • Conjunctiva is pale.
  • Face: Whitish pigmentation on face, pale face, unhealthy skin.
  • Nails: pale and flat(platynychia), spoon shaped concave(koilonychia)

 Treatment: 

  • Directed to Cause – Homoeopathic Treatment be preferred for long lasting results
  • Blood/PRC Transfusion in cases of severe life threatening cases
  • Surgical cases may need Surgical Intervention or few .
  • Regular Exercise helps to regularize metabolic functions

If any nutritional deficiency then, take -iron-folic acid RICH FOOD:

Food-rich-in-iron