It is one of the common blood disorders; it refers to reduction in, RBC, Hb, packed cell volume (PCV)
When the Hb content of the blood is decrease below the normal level. And form,
- Decrease production of RBC
- Increase destruction of RBC.
- Excess loss of blood from the body.
- Accidents / hemorrhage from the body – may be internal or external.
- Hereditary & acquired.
- Infection, Inflammation.
- Chronic blood loss.
- Nutritional deficiency.
- Blood disorders.
- Pregnancy or in post menopausal period.
1. Morphological classification:-
Here it depends upon the size & color of RBC, color is determined by quantity of Hb.
- Normocytic normochromic anemia: Here the size & Hb content of RBC are normal, but no. of RBC’s less.
- Macrocytic normochromic anemia: In this RBC are larger in size with normal Hb content, the RBC count is decrease.
- Macrocytic hypochromic anemia: Here the RBC is larger in size. The Hb content in the cell (MCH- Mean Corpuscular Hb ) is less, so the cells are pale.
- Microcytic hypochromic anemia: The RBC is smaller in size & the Hb content (MCH) is less.
2. Etiological classification : –
Hemorrhagic Aaemia: it is of 2 types acute & chronic
In Acute hemorrhage occurs in conditions like accidents, ulcers, excessive uterine bleeding, purpura & hemophilia.
In Chronic Hemorrhage the condition like loss of blood by internal & external bleeding over a long periods of time like – peptic ulcer, purpura, hemophilia, menorrhagia.
Hemolytic Anemia: – Hemolytic means destruction of RBC.
Causes of hemolytic anemia are as follows
- Liver failure.
- Renal disorder.
- Hypersplenism burns or any infections like malaria or septicemia.
- When the shape is abnormal, RBC becomes more
- Fragile & hemolytic occurs easily.
Nutritional Deficiency Anemia:– iron deficiency anemia:- Its is the most common type of anemia & present in world wide. it is develops due to inadequate availability of iron for Hb synthesis.
Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia are as follows:
- Loss of blood
- Decrease intake of iron.
- Poor absorption of iron from intestine (duodenum & jejunum)
- Increase demand of iron in pregnancy & growth.
- Sex: in females: Especially in Indian females in reproductive life & menorrhagia.
- In post- menopausal woman’s
- In males: it is less but due to some reasons like- peptic ulcers, UTI-haematuria, epistaxis etc.
- Infants & children’s.
Clinical features :
- Skin Pallor.
- Pigmentation of skin.
- Koilonychia- nails are soft, thin, and brittle, spoon shaped & became concave.
- Menstrual cycle is disturbed.
- Lack of concentration.
- Increase rate of respiration..Etc…
- Leucocytes count.
- Bone marrow findings
- Hb% – Normal value in females : 11 – 14 gm% &
- In males :12- 15 gm%
- Eye: Pallor ++,
- Conjunctiva is pale.
- Face: Whitish pigmentation on face, pale face, unhealthy skin.
- Nails: pale and flat(platynychia), spoon shaped concave(koilonychia)
- Directed to Cause – Homoeopathic Treatment be preferred for long lasting results
- Blood/PRC Transfusion in cases of severe life threatening cases
- Surgical cases may need Surgical Intervention or few .
- Regular Exercise helps to regularize metabolic functions
If any nutritional deficiency then, take -iron-folic acid RICH FOOD: